About Me

I made my entrance into this world Feb 13,1933, in a makeshift garage outside of Alpena Arkansas.

Grew up in the Midwest as my father became an electrical engineer bringing electric to rural America.

1951 I married Jewell Paden, and have celebrated 62 yr, of bless.

She gave me two children who both are in the Ministry. Five grand children, Nine great grand children,

My education started at,

Salinas Union High School Salinas, CA, (General Ed.)

Modesto Jr. College Modesto CA. (Computer Science)

Lee University, Cleveland TN. (Biblical Studies)

Ohio State University, Athens OH (Psychology)

U.C. Berkley, Berkley, CA (Travology)

Asbury Theological Seminary, Israel, (Biblical Archeology)

Pentecostal Theological Seminary, Fresno Ext.. Fresno CA. (Theology)

Saturday, April 15, 2017


For those that have not heard, Dad, Luchen Bailey was in a fatal automobile accident on April 8th. He is now in the presence of His Savior that he has written about so much on this site.  Thank you all for the years of reading and interacting with dad through ...AND NOW YOU KNOW MORE...  He loved writing and corresponding with each of you.  Continued prayers for the family are appreciated as we learn to live life without him.

Saturday, April 8, 2017

ap 8ok

Sunday, April 9, 2017,  is Palm Sunday:
Palm Sunday commemorates the  triumphal entry into  Jerusalem of this takes place about a week before his ResurrectionAccording to the Gospels, Jesus rode a donkey into Jerusalem, and the celebrating people there laid down their cloaks in front of him, and also laid down small branches of Palm trees. The people sang part of Psalm 118: 25–26 – ... Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord. We bless you from the house of the Lord ....”

The symbolism is captured in Zechariah 9:9 "The Coming of Zion's King – See: your king comes to you, righteous and victorious, lowly and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey".  

The symbolism of the donkey may refer to the Eastern tradition that it is an animal of peace, versus the horse, which is the animal of war. A king came riding upon a horse when he was going to war and rode upon a donkey when he wanted to 
point out he was coming in peace. Jesus' entry to Jerusalem would thus symbolize his entry as the Prince of Peace, not as a war-waging king.

There is  a old eastern custom when a highly honored person came to town they would meet him with laying out Palm leaves as a symbol of peace.  Later they rolled out a strip of red carpet in arriving and departing of a royal guest. The use of red carpet is where we get the saying “rolling out the red carpet.

The palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory, in the Greco-Roman culture of the Roman Empire, and became the most common attribute of the goddess “Nike or Victory”.

Funeral at Mosque of Omar 
In ancient Egyptian religion, the palm was carried in funeral processions and represented eternal life. The palm branch later became a symbol of Christian martyrs and their spiritual victory or triumph over death. While studying in Israel, the day we visited the Mosque of Omar, a Muslim funeral was in progress. Preceding the casket were men waving palm branches in front, as a symbol of his final enter into the resting place.  

We visited the Catacombs in Rome and on some of the wall were painting of palm leaves.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Palm Sunday was marked by the burning of Jack-'o'-Lent figures. This was a straw effigy which would be stoned and abused. Its burning on Palm Sunday was often supposed to be a kind of revenge on Judas Iscariot, who had betrayed Christ.

On Palm Sunday the Christian churches celebrate the triumphal entry of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem, the week before his death and resurrection. For many Christian churches, Palm Sunday, often referred to as "Passion Sunday," marks the beginning of Holy Week, which concludes on Easter Sunday.

When Jesus and the disciples drew near Jerusalem and came to Bethpage on the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, saying to them, “Go into the village opposite you, 
and immediately you will find an ass tethered, and a colt with her. Untie them and bring them here   to me.  And if anyone should say anything to you, reply,   ‘The master has need of them. Then he will send them at once.”
The Bible reveals that when Jesus entered Jerusalem, the crowds greeted him by waving palm branches and covering his path with palm branches. Immediately following this great time of celebration in the ministry of Jesus, He begins His journey to the cross.

Luke takes us back to the last week in His earthly ministry, and a colt that had never been rode. Had Jesus not been the master of all, that would have been a ride that would make the old west rodeo look like a pleasure ride. They were to go to the cross roads to find the mount.

No other place.

He was a new King; this new King had no royal stables to keep his mounts. Other kings would have his mount decorated with jewels of splendor. The disciples make for their King a make-shift saddle with their garments.

Jesus enters in peace even though He knows it is his last entry to Jerusalem.

The Persian King Shpor a Muslim, upon hearing the prophesy of Israelis King, told Rabbi Samuel, “When your king comes, I will give him a horse to ride”, the Rabbi replied, ”Do you have one with 100 colors and 1000 qualities?”

Jesus chose unbroken men to be his disciples, men we would not have chosen, but He called them and is still calling today, Follow Me.

Feel free to forward to your friends,

Friday, April 7, 2017


Today we close the Temple Mound study with a brief up-to-date report on the Temple Mound.

The Temple Mound is maintained by the Ministry of Awqaf in Amman, Jordan. You read this right, not Israel.

The Dome of the Rock is located at the center of Temple Mound. It was constructed on the site of the Second Temple, which was destroyed during the Roman in  70 AD.

Since 1967, non-Muslims have been permitted limited access; however, non-Muslims are not permitted to pray on the Temple Mount or carry any form of a religious artifact or anything with Hebrew letters.

The Temple Mound has been closed off and on to all non—Muslims.

In 2006, the Temple Mount was reopened to non-Muslim visitors during the hours of 7:30–11:30 am and 1:30–2:30 pm during summer and 7:30–10:30 am and 1:30–2:30 pm during winter. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering after 2:30 pm and may not enter on Fridays, Saturdays, or Muslim holidays. Entry is through a wooden walkway next to the entrance to the Western Wall. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the mosques, entering the Dome of the Rock, and accessing the Temple Mount through the Cotton Market. Visitors are subject to strict security screening.

The Temple's Holy of Holies stood near the center of today's Temple Mount, Jews are religiously forbidden from entering the area.

Arabs can enter the Temple Mount through one of ten different Muslim-only gates from various sites in the Old City. Tourists and Jews are only allowed access to the site through the Mugrabi Gate, which is located just above to the left of the Western Wall Plaza. No Jewish groups can pray in the plaza.
On October 17, 2014, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbass gave a speech in which he stated that "we have to prevent the settlers from entering the Temple Mount by any means.  It is our mosque and they have no right to enter and desecrate it". 

NEW YORK TIMES, ( April 17, 2015).
In early 2015, Palestinian women began to “protect” the al-Aksa Mosque from Jews, with one woman stating that “Everybody must protect Al Aqsa so the Jews don’t take it. ”

JERUSALEM POST, (August 11, 2015).
Members of the Israel Allies Foundation's Congressional caucus were harassed by a group of Arab men while they visited the Temple Mount. A group of U.S. Congressmen was visiting the Temple Mount as a part of their planned trip to the Middle East, and were, “immediately approached by several men who started shouting,” upon their arrival to the holy site, according to Representative Keith Rothfus, Congressman from Pennsylvania. Rothfus continued, describing that the group of Congressmen were, “tracked the entire time we were there and we found these individuals surprisingly intolerant and belligerent.”

BLOOMBERG, ( October 18, 2015)
French ambassador to the United Nations Francois Delattre circulated a draft resolution at the United Nations Security Council, to place the Temple Mount under the authority of international observers.
Netanyahu responded, “Israel cannot accept the French draft resolution at the United Nations Security Council. It doesn’t mention Palestinian incitement; it doesn’t mention Palestinian terrorism, and it calls for the internationalization of the Temple Mount.” 

The Arabs also wanted to designate the western wall as an extension of and part of the Al-Aksa Mosque, but they were forced to back down after a storm of international protest and the opposition of UNESCO’s Director-General.
In order to reduce the violence surrounding access to the Temple Mount and Al-Aksa, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry announced on October 24, 2015, that Israeli and Jordanian authorities had agreed to various steps aimed at reducing tensions at the holy site. After meeting with Israeli leaders as well as Jordanian King Abdullah and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas, Kerry stated that all parties involved agreed to consider having round-the-clock video monitoring installed at the site.
October 23, 2016, Some Jews visited the Temple Mound and police did allow some to pray. According to “Breaking News Israel”.

December 27, 2016,
Yaakov Hayman, the head of Yishai, an NGO dedicated to reinstating Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount, is preparing to submit a survey map to the Israeli government to build four synagogues, one in each corner of the Temple Mount compound, a critical turning point steering Israel in the right direction towards prayer at Judaism’s holiest site.
Read more at,
March 21, 2017. 'Don't settle for Western Wall, focus attention again on the important place'.

Keep your eyes on Israel.
Next lesson we will look at Apostles Creed and its contribution to the authenticity of our Bible.

My colleague David Hall posted an excellent article that helps prove the violated of our Bible:1,800-year-old #Hebrew inscription uncovered in #Galilee -

"It seems that every month another ancient Hebrew inscription is found somewhere that further proves the ancient connection of the Jewish people to the Land of Israel."

Thanks David for your many academician posts on archaeological finds that prove the validity of our Bible.

Wednesday, April 5, 2017


After September 2000, the Muslim Waqf closed off the Temple Mount entirely to any archeological oversight by the Israel Antiquities Authority. Then, in order to complete new underground mosques at the site, it removed to city garbage dumps some 13,000 tons of rubble from the Temple Mount that included archeological remnants from the First and Second Temple periods.
The intention is to turn the entire 36-acre Temple Mount compound into an exclusively Muslim site by erasing every sign, remnant, and memory of its Jewish past, including the destruction of archeological findings that are proof of this past.
In a country where construction projects may be held up for months out of concern for the preservation of antiquities, the free hand given the Muslim Waqf to destroy Jewish artifacts at Judaism's holiest site is hard to comprehend.
In an earlier post-William, Cato made a comment about the finding of an artifice that dates to the Biblical account of the temple.
An inscription attributed to Jehoash, the king of Judea who ruled in Jerusalem at the end of the ninth century B.C., has been authenticated by experts from the National Infrastructure Ministry's Geological Survey of Israel following months of examination. The 10-line fragment, which was apparently found on the Temple Mount, is written in the first person on a black stone tablet in an ancient Phoenician script. The inscription's description of Temple "house repairs" ordered by King Jehoash strongly resembles passages in the Second Book of Kings, chapter 12.
Dr. Gabriel Barkai, a leading Israeli archaeologist from Bar Ilan University's Land of Israel Studies Department, says that if the inscription proves to be authentic, the finding is a "sensation" of the greatest import. It could be, he says, the most significant archaeological finding yet in Jerusalem and the Land of Israel. It would be a first-of-its-kind piece of physical evidence describing events in a manner that adheres to the narrative in the Bible.
According to Dr. Barkai, such a finding, which appears to furnish proof of the existence of the Temple, must be made available for examination by scholars, and can not be kept a virtual secret.
Detailed research findings of the inscription are to be disclosed in a collection of articles published by the Geology Survey of Israel, a government research institute. Research studies have been prepared by Dr. Shimon Ilani, Dr. Amnon Rosenfeld and Michael Dvorchik, the institute's chief technician who carried out electronic microscope tests of the inscription that, the three say, were largely responsible for the finding's authentication.
Apart from noting that the discovery was made in Jerusalem, the researchers do not disclose where the inscription was found. But sources have indicated that the writing surfaced in the Temple Mount area as a result of widescale excavation work done in recent years in the area by Muslims and that Palestinians relayed the fragment to a major collector of antiquities in Jerusalem.
The Jerusalem collector is represented by attorney Isaac Herzog, a former cabinet secretary and currently a Knesset candidate on Labor's list.

The collector offered to sell the inscription to the Israel Museum, but museum curators who examined the fragment cast doubt on its authenticity, though they did not state categorically that the writing was a forgery.
Ilani and Rosenfeld refused to discuss the Israel Museum's response with Ha'aretz. But officials from the Geology Survey said that results of the battery of examinations that were carried out must be taken as conclusive: It's inconceivable that such extensive testing would fail to reveal a forgery, they said. The inscription is authentic, they insisted, and the finding is an archaeological sensation that could have global repercussions and that effectively vindicates Jewish claims to the Temple Mount.

The inscription lauds repairs carried out by King Jehoash in ways reminiscent of the description in the Second Book of Kings. It includes the king's request that priests collect public money to be used for the repair of the First Temple, and there are references to the purchase of timber and quarried stones for the carrying out of repairs on the Temple.
The inscription contains fragments from 2 Kings 12:15: "And they did not ask an accounting from the men into whose hands they delivered the money to pay out to the workmen; for they dealt honestly."
The researchers believe that the sandstone used for the inscription was brought from southern Jordan, or the Dead Sea region. Materials that covered the inscription over the years date from 200-400 B.C., they suggest.
Ilani and Rosenfeld speculate that during this period, the inscription began to be covered up as a buried object. Should this hypothesis be correct, it would mean that the inscription was exposed to the elements for hundreds of years, before being buried some 500-600 years after it was written.
My Colleague Richard Thornhill, has an excellent post on “Why Archeology?” in “The Bible, the Source of Life” well worth reading his material.

Monday, April 3, 2017

This week we continue our look at what is going on in the world of the Islamic movement to spread their ideological move to make Jerusalem a more holy place.

Plan to Bring "Holy Water" from Mecca.

Sheikh Rayadh Salah, the head of the Israeli Islamic movement and an Israeli citizen, is the force behind all the activities in the past few years. Salah stands behind the ambitious project to clean and renovate 37 empty underground spaces, some of which include large halls, each encompassing 300 square feet, with heights of more than 30 feet. He has arranged funding and donations from throughout the Arab world to support these efforts.
Extensive work continues to clean ten water holes for storing water from the holy Zamzam River in Mecca,  { Islamic tradition states that the Zamzam Well was formed when Hagar the second wife of Abraham was left in the desert with her infant Ishmael who scraped the land with his feet when suddenly water sprang out. There are other versions of the story involving God sending Gabriel the angel who kicked the ground with his heel (or wing), and water appeared. Today the water from this well is bottled and sold around the world by the Islamic leaders.} By doing this would increase the holiness of the Temple Mount in the eyes of the Muslims and increasing its importance as a special central area for prayer in the eyes of the entire Muslim world. The hidden agenda of the Islamic movement is to elevate the sanctity of Jerusalem in Islam, to place it on a par with Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia.
All of the underground spaces of the Temple Mount are ancient, some possibly Canaanite, and others date from the period of the First Temple, from the days of the Hasmoneans and Herod. Some served as ancient gates to the Temple Mount, and others as purifying baths for priests who became impure. These underground spaces present a most important archeological connection for our knowledge of the Temple Mount and for research of its origins. It is impossible to imagine any kind of work in these cisterns being done without archeological supervision.

The Southern Wall is About to Fall

While the large-scale destruction of artifacts has now stopped, and the trucks have stopped carting away tons of valuable debris, there is still no supervision whatsoever on the Temple Mount. Furthermore, an increasingly dangerous buckling is now evident in the southern wall of the Temple Mount, which might collapse if left without any oversight or attention by government officials.
According to Hebrew University archeologist Dr. Eilat Mazar, author of The Complete Guide to the Temple Mount Excavations, "We have no way of knowing what is going on underground in the large caverns, where the Waqf is making major changes. The southern wall is beginning to buckle because of the destruction carried out by the Waqf. It is about to fall -- within a matter of months, and possibly even doing nothing to stop it," said Dr. Mazar.
The bulging of the wall is clearly visible, but nothing is being done about it since Israeli authorities are barred from entering. "These walls were not built to support tractors and loaded trucks. The path of the rainwater has also been changed in the process, and water is trickling down the walls and eating away at them. The Waqf has placed some scaffolding there to try to hold up the wall but is doing no work to repair it. Once a catastrophe happens, Israel will be blamed, and perhaps justifiably so, since we are Temple Mount," Dr. Mazar concluded.

Islamic Disregard for the Heritage of Others.

The Taliban's destruction of ancient Buddhist cultural treasures in the Bamian Valley of Afghanistan during 1998 should have sounded a warning throughout the world over radical Islam's disregard for the religious heritage of others. The Taliban's extremism was partly a result of the influence of their guest, Osama bin Laden, and their Saudi Wahhabi paymasters more generally.
Israel has witnessed a similar and more widespread pattern of actions by Islamists in support a pre-eminent, if not exclusive, Islamic claim to the Holy Land:
  • In Nazareth, Muslim zealots have sought since 1997 to construct a large mosque that would dwarf the Christian Basilica of the Annunciation.
  • On October 7, 2000, after constant attacks by Palestinian mobs, the Jewish holy site of Joseph's Tomb in Nablus (Shechem) was sacked and burned, and later converted into a mosque. Five days later, the ancient Shalom Al Yisrael synagogue in Jericho was sacked and burned by Palestinians.
  • Rachel's Tomb at the Jerusalem-Bethlehem border has come under repeated Palestinian sniper attack.
  • In April 2002, Palestinian Tanzim gunmen from Yasser Arafat's Fatah movement took over the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and controlled the site for weeks at gunpoint.

However, the activities by the Muslim Waqf and the Israeli Muslim movement on the Temple Mount represent an unprecedented attempt to deny any legitimacy to the ancient Jewish heritage in Jerusalem.

Friday, March 31, 2017


The Muslims Change the Temple Mound.

In 1996, Palestinian Islamic clerics changed the accepted status quo that had been preserved for generations and converted two ancient underground Second Temple period structures into a new large mosque. Both structures, known as Solomon's Stables and the Eastern Hulda Gate passageway, were never mosques before. The new mosque extends over an area of 1.5 acres and has become the largest mosque in Israel, able to accommodate 10,000 people.
In 1997, another ancient underground Second Temple period structure, known as the Western Hulda Gate passageway, was converted into another new mosque.
In November 1999, the Islamic clerics opened what they called an "emergency exit" to the new mosque. Over three days and nights, the "exit" expanded into a gaping hole. Thousands of tons of ancient fill from the site, subsequently found by Israeli archeologists to contain artifacts dating as early as the First Temple period, were dumped into the Kidron Valley.
In February and March 2001, an ancient arched structure built against the eastern wall of the Temple Mount enclosure was razed by bulldozers in order to further enlarge the "emergency gate" of the new mosque at Solomon's Stables.
Furthermore, without any archeological supervision, approximately 18,000 square feet of the ancient surface level of the Temple Mount were dug up by tractors, paved, and declared to be open mosques. The previous director of the Antiquities Authority has called this "an archeological crime." No Israeli official has seen any plans or has set limits on the work being carried out.
While Israel government officials declared they would close the gates of the Temple Mount to heavy equipment, such as trucks and tractors, and that building materials and construction equipment would not be allowed into the Temple Mount, and no earth or rubble would be allowed to be removed for dumping, building materials such as stone blocks, paving stones and masonry, wood planks, steel reinforcement rods, and scaffolding continued to flow into the Temple Mount. A large area of approximately 45,000 square feet in the eastern part of the Temple Mount appeared like one gigantic construction site for a length of about 750 feet, from the gateway to Solomon's Stables up to the Gate of Mercy. Similarly, the removal of earth and rubble continued, that included rare archeological finds that are forever lost to science and culture.
The Muslims claim that the Temple Mount is an ancient mosque dating from the time of Adam and Eve. Thus, their goal is to turn the entire area into one giant mosque, and into an exclusively Muslim area. They have been working diligently to erase and destroy every archeological remnant and finding that may testify to any Jewish spark or connection to the place. Their intention is to change the status quo of the place by turning all the areas of the Mount into Muslim holy places, mosques, and prayer areas, with the intention of preventing any Jewish presence whatsoever in the future.
During this period, Jordan steadily withdrew its religious authority over the Temple Mount, ceding control to Palestinian-appointed officials. By the time Yasser Arafat launched his violence against Israel in September 2000, the Palestinian takeover of authority on the Temple Mount was complete. As a result, the Israel Antiquities Authority has been prevented from entering the Temple Mount area, since the Waqf, as the practical custodian of the site, was empowered to decide who was permitted entry and who was forbidden.
The Antiquities Authority admits that the situation on the Mount is serious and that antiquities have been disturbed. Yet Islamic clerics deny any non-Moslem connection to the Temple Mount and prevent archeologists from investigating the site, one of the world's most prominent ancient treasures. While Israel has accepted its present inability to actively explore the Temple Mount, it is one thing to prevent exploration and quite another to bulldoze through ancient structures without any archeological supervision.

Next week we will continue with the Temple  Mound.

Thursday, March 30, 2017


Today is # 2 of 6 lessons on Jerusalem in the time of Christ. Today we pick up with the temple in Jerusalem.
This is the temple Jesus knew. It is the one in which Gabriel and Zacharias conversed relative to him who should prepare the way before the Lord. It is the one in which Jesus was taken as an infant. Here at the age of twelve, he confounded the wise men. From it, He drove out the moneychangers. Following the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in the year 70, the area of the Temple was deliberately left in ruins (first by the Romans, then by the Byzantines). This desecration was not redressed until the Muslim Conquest of the city by the Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab in AD 638. He ordered the clearing of the site and the building of a "house of prayer". Some 50 years later, the Umayyad  Caliph Abd al-Malik built the Dome of the Rock to enshrine the outcrop of bedrock believed to be the "place of the sacrifice" on Mount Moriah.
The Temple Mount (Heb., Har Habayit; Arabic, Haram esh-Sharif, the Noble Sanctuary), is identified in both Jewish and Islamic Tradition as the area of Mount Moriah where Abraham offered up his son in sacrifice (Genesis 22:1-18; the Koran, Sura Al-Saffat 37:102-110).
My reasoning for including the Koran and it references to this location is that l will discuss some of the actives going on at the Temple Mound by the Islamic leaders.

The Dome of The Rock
From my personal file.
The Dome of the Rock (Arabic, Qubbat al-Sakhra) is one of the architectural glories of the world, and the only early Islamic sanctuary to have survived intact. The design of the building is basically Byzantine - double octagonal ambulatories encircling the Holy Rock. Built as a shrine and not a mosque, as is commonly assumed. It is the third holiest place in Islam after the Ka'ba in Mecca and the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina. The Dome of the Rock is built on the site at which Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad ascended to Heaven one night on his horse Buraq. This counts as the only miracle Muhammad performed, (classical Islam not being overly fond of miracles as a rule, regarding them as unimportant). At the center of the Dome of the Rock sits a large rock, which is believed to be the location where Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac. Muslims believe that the Rock commemorates the night journey of Muhammad. Sometimes erroneously called the Mosque of Umar, from a tradition that it was built by Caliph Umar I, the Dome of the Rock was actually built by Caliph Abd al-Malik between 687 and 691. When the early Muslims captured Jerusalem in 634, just two years after Muhammad's death, they began to build on the site.

The day that our class visited the Dome a Muslim funeral was in progress.

The Temple Mount in 1967.

As a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, Jerusalem once again became a united city. On June 27, the Knesset passed an amendment to the Law and Administration Ordinance that extended Israeli sovereignty to the eastern part of the city of Jerusalem, including the Old City where the Temple Mount stands.
At the same time, the Knesset also passed the Safeguarding of the Holy Places Law, which states: "The holy places shall be safeguarded against desecration and any other harm, and from anything liable to impede freedom of access to members of religious denominations to the places sacred to them or to their feelings regarding those places." In other words, freedom of access of the various religious denominations to their holy places is anchored in the laws of the state and in decisions of the High Court of Justice.
Soon after its capture, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan handed the keys to the Temple Mount to the Muslim Waqf authorities of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in a gesture of respect for the rights of Muslims at the site.
In August 1967, the Chief Rabbis of Israel, Isser Yehuda Unterman and Yitzhak Nissim, in concert with other leading rabbis, asserted that "For generations, we have warned against and refrained from entering any part of the Temple Mount." As a result, most observant Jews refrain from entering the Temple Mount. Instead, they pray en masse at the Western Wall. However, in a later period, Chief Rabbis Mordechai Eliahu and Shlomo Goren expressed the view that Jews should be allowed to enter and pray in parts of the Temple Mount where the Temple was not situated, notably in the northern and southern expanses of the Mount. After Israel implemented the 1993 Oslo Agreement with the PLO, the newly established Palestinian Authority (PA) of Yasser Arafat began to set up offices in Jerusalem which, according to the agreement, remained under Israel's sole jurisdiction. In fact, the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty of October 26, 1994 (Article 9) declared that "Israel respects the present special role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Muslim Holy shrines in Jerusalem. When negotiations on the permanent status will take place, Israel will give high priority to the Jordanian historic role in these shrines." Yet, after Oslo, PA penetration of Jerusalem deepened and included the appointment of a Palestinian minister for Waqf affairs, Hasan Tahbub, and a Palestinian mufti of Jerusalem, 'Ikrimi Sabri.
During this period, Jordan steadily withdrew its religious authority over the Temple Mount, ceding control to Palestinian-appointed officials. By the time Yasser Arafat launched his violence against Israel in September 2000, the Palestinian takeover of authority on the Temple Mount was complete. As a result, the Israel Antiquities Authority has been prevented from entering the Temple Mount area, since the Waqf, as the practical custodian of the site, was empowered to decide who was permitted entry and who was forbidden.
The Antiquities Authority admits that the situation on the Mount is serious and that antiquities have been disturbed. Yet Islamic clerics deny any non-Moslem connection to the Temple Mount and prevent archeologists from investigating the site, one of the world's most prominent ancient treasures. While Israel has accepted its present inability to actively explore the Temple Mount, it is one thing to prevent exploration and quite another to bulldoze through ancient structures without any archeological supervision.

Next lesson we will continue with the Temple Mound.